The Tuareg people found their territory separated by the French colonizers. Then they found themselves in 5 countries: Algeria, Burkina Faso, Libya and Niger. Thus, not only their traditional governance systems (Confederacy) are broken but also their way of life (nomadism) is threatened. They become a minority in the five countries, marginalized and left behind by national institutions. That led to three major Tuareg rebellions in Mali, where Tuareg people asked for the access to national programs like health centers, schools, water, roads and also to have an autonomy in how these services are designated so they respond to the need of people and in harmony of their way of life. Unfortunately, despite all the efforts done both by the Tuaregs and all the people that are in solidarity with them, these demands have not been heard yet. More than 200 000 Tuareg people, mainly women, children and elders had still to flew to neighboring countries for their security. In 1991, Mariam’s family has been attacked and her uncle was killed in the same house. The survivors of her family at that time also crossed the borders to save their lives.
It is in that context Mariam, alongside with her sisters and other nomadic women in the Sahel, founded an organization named Tinhinan, the name of a legendary Tuareg queen, to educate nomadic women about their human rights both enshrined in traditional, national, regional and international laws and to work Tuareg people including women, youth and leaders , UN organizations (ECOSOC and Peacebuilding Commission), members states,sub regional institutions (ECOWAS, G5-Sahel), others Indigenous peoples and academic institutions.